Subsequently definitions are formulated and key examples, with rules for coding in separate categories, are agreed upon. Inter-subjective verifiability is a case in point here. Indeed, the case study’s unique strength is “its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations” YIN, a, p. Social Research Methods 2 Alan Bryman This will help to refine the data collection plans with respect to both the content of the data and the procedures to be followed. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Therefore they argue in favor of a theory-based category system, which is more open and can be changed during extraction when relevant information turns up but does not fit into the category system.
Besides, theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the appropriately developed theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur. Two specific problems of content analysis that are often discussed in this context are problems of inference and problems of reliability TITSCHER et al. Its development Section 4. Then, a basic introduction to qualitative content analysis as an interpretation and analysis method for text documents—especially the transcripts of qualitative interviews—and other data material is given, with the focus on Philipp MAYRING’s approach to qualitative content analysis. This role of theory has been characterized by YIN a as “analytic generalization” and has been contrasted with a different way of generalizing results, known as “statistical generalization” pp. This means that in a comprehensive study which aims at analyzing different kinds of data material, the same method can be applied to different types of evidence—a major advantage not only from a pragmatic point of view, but also as far as quality criteria are concerned. Last but not least, when using qualitative content analysis in case study research, one should be aware of the fact that “[r]eplicating a mixed-methods package […] is a nearly impossible task” JICK, , p.
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Since then MAYRING’s works seem to have become standard literature on qualitative content analysis and kkohlbacher regularly appear in new editions e. Data accumulated by different methods but bearing qualitstive the same issue are part of what is called the ” multi-method approach”: One main characteristic of this dispute seems to be the dichotomous way in which qualitative and quantitative research methods were presented as well as the resulting strict contraposition of the two cf.
At this level, qualitative research involves an interpretive, naturalistic approach to the world. Articles Cited by Co-authors. New articles related to this author’s research. According to HARTLEY research design is “the argument for the logical steps which will be taken to link the research question s and issues to data collection, analysis and interpretation in a coherent way” xnalysis.
However, when analyzing the frequency of keywords considerable deviations from the citation analysis turned up: Kse, there have also been traditional prejudices against case study strategy in such a way that case studies have been viewed as a less desirable casee of inquiry for instance cf. It is widely accepted that measurement or the methods of measurement should be as objective, reliable and valid as possible cf.
Abstract This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research. Golden opportunities for silver innovation: This section explores and discusses the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research and thus tries to find an answer to the research question initially posed see Section 2.
Content analysis in communication research. Obviously, classical content analysis is essentially a quantitative method with the core and central tool anapysis its system of categories cf. Qualigative fact, it is not only the manifest content of the material that is important but also the latent content as well as formal aspects need to be taken into thee cf.
However, this qualitatively oriented approach to content analysis—a discipline traditionally dominated by quantitative methods—has mainly been discussed and used within the German-speaking scientific community and does not seem to kohlacher attracted as much attention internationally as it actually deserves 2. Studien zur qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse.
Besides, different indices which correlate two separate measurements and contingencies, more complex procedures can also be used for analysis TITSCHER et al. Obviously, the central part of the process—structuring—is derived from classical content analysis, because here, too, units of coding anapysis evaluation are set up and arranged in a schema of usw TITSCHER et al.
Therefore, qualitative content analysis offers a rule-based, theory-guided method for analyzing interview transcripts, just in the way it is required by the principles of case study research.
Qualitative Social Research 7 1, As matter of fact, case study as a research strategy comprises an all-encompassing method, which means that a number of methods may be used—either qualitative, quantitative or both cf. Bible interpretationsearly newspaper analysis, graphological procedures and even Freudian dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis MAYRING, a, .
This paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research. Being a little bit more specific he defines qualitative content analysis in the following way:. Die Praxis der qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse Philipp Mayring Besides, case study research design can be used with other research strategies to address related research questions in different phases of a research project, and yet a further strategy would be to start with exploratory case study research and then to test the emerging findings in wider survey-based research HARTLEY,p.
This is certainly a great advantage when dealing with various, heterogeneous types of data material. As a matter of fact, its quantitative counterpart—classical content analysis—is repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data in the context of conducting case study research cf. At the same time, qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the complexity and gradually reduce it.
We just mentioned theory-guided analysis as one of the special strengths of qualitative content analysis see above, Section 5.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research
There is an emphasis on allowing categories to emerge out of data and on recognizing the significance for understanding the meaning of the context in which an item being analyzed and the categories derived from it appeared” BRYMAN,p. Flprian material is to be analyzed step by step, following rules of procedure, devising the material into content analytical units.
Then, a basic introduction to qualitative content analysis as an interpretation kohlbadher for qualitative interviews and other data material is given. Basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis Source: The first stage is the determination of the units of analysis, after which the dimensions of the structuring are established on some theoretical basis and the features of the system of categories are fixed.