The use of qualitative content analysis in case study research. In the empirical sciences, inference is a fundamental process, as it seeks from the factual knowledge to reach the awareness of the reasons for this fact. It highlighted the strengths of qualitative content analysis as a method that achieves to respect the credos of openness and theory-guided analysis at the same time. However, this seems to be rather the description of a general approach to analyzing documents qualitatively. Some answers, Administrative Science Quarterly, 26 1: Stability refers to whether the same results are obtained in a renewed application of the analytical tool to the same text and reproducibility is the extent to which the analysis achieves the same results under different circumstances, for instance with different coders. Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they do not address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods HARTLEY, , p.

Survey, grounded theory, action research, ethnography, and case study are some of the research strategies available for the researcher to choose from. Figure 1 shows the basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis from the initial theory to the final analysis and interpretation. In the next section we deepen the discussion of inference, including, beyond the induction and the deduction, the adductive reasoning. Fitting the material into a model of communication: Technical fuzziness of qualitatively oriented research needs to be balanced by theoretical stringency. Case Studies in Organizational Research. There is also a third form of reasoning, in general little used by researchers in CA:

This section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a short outline of the paper, cotent its aim, structure and scope.

Examples in psychology Bromley, sociology Creswell, ; Yin, and in education Stake, ; have studied the individual as the unit of analysis. These authors have diagrammatically shown the unit of analysis by a circle enclosing a heart in the middle. Categories researc the center of analysis: References Publications referenced by this paper.

Besides, case study research design can be used with other research strategies to address related research questions in different qualitatlve of a research project, and yet a further strategy would be to start with exploratory case study research and then to test the emerging findings in wider survey-based research HARTLEY,conteent.

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The author sanctions that needed analytic strategy is ones guide to crafting this story and only rarely will your data do the shaping of the story. Tellis agrees with Miles and Huberman by declaring the unit of analysis as a critical factor in the case study. Besides, due to the limited scope of this paper and my own research interests, the focus will mainly be on organizational and managerial research, even though both qualitative content analysis as well as case study research can be used in a much wider range of research fields see also Sections 3.

If patterns coincide, internal validity is enhanced. According to these authors, a case study research can consist of multiple data sources or multiple methods, which need to be brought together at some stage.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research kohlbacher

In such a setting, a case study would be an explanatory one ibid. Moreover, qualitative research methods have often faced acceptance problems and academic and disciplinary resistances, which are partly due to the politics embedded in this field of discourse cf. The so-called inter-coder reliability shows to what extent different coders agree in the coding of the same text and intra-coder reliability explains how stable the coding of one coder is.

Figure 3 shows the steps of deductive category application. Case studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that the case study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research strategy in its own right cf. Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they do not address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods HARTLEY,p.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

Therefore, the author strongly recommends all researchers who are conducting case studies to use qualitattive apply qualitative content analysis in their research endeavors. Management Research News26 5 Yin has highlighted the confusion about the evidence e.

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We log anonymous usage statistics. Properties of the coders: In the case of using qualitative content analysis in case study research, qnalysis takes actually place on two different levels.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – Semantic Scholar

If the categories emerging from the data, not from the theory, then one can say that these categories are grounded in the data, i.

Triangulation in organizational research: What constitutes a case usse a case study research is one of the fundamental questions that needs a clear and comprehensive answer before proceeding with the research. In fact, despite this openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a step-by-step process see Section 4.

Abstract This contetn aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a text interpretation method in case study research. An introduction to its methodology 2nd ed.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research kohlbacher

This technique is known as cross-case synthesis technique. In the second one, we outline and we discuss the standard procedures of a categorical CA, according to the style version made famous by Bardin The author has given a 2×2 variant matrix, according to which four types of case study designs are available for the researcher to choose from.

The further ise of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what contenh of other errors can be made or occur in conducting content analysis ibid. Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and evaluated.

the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research kohlbacher

Even a case study which is normally believed to be a qualitative research can be limited to quantitative evidence Yin, a.